Six months into World War I (1914-1918), along the battle area known as the Western Front (Belgium and northern France), gunfire mostly ceased on Christmas Eve in isolated pockets. German soldiers began putting miniature Christmas trees outside their trenches while singing Christmas carols. When the British soldiers – who were only 30 yards away in some places – heard them, they joined the chorus.

Ultimately, an agreement was reached between the German soldiers and the British soldiers not to fire on each other on Christmas Day (and, implicitly, the rest of Christmas Eve). Localized, unofficial ceasefires like these across half or more of the Western Front involved over 100,000 British and German soldiers. This grassroots phenomenon, comprising all these isolated truces, came to be known as the Christmas Truce of 1914.

Perhaps you’ve heard this tale before. After all, it’s not terribly obscure, and it’s been covered in movies, books and music extensively. Maybe you’re even a history buff or WWI subject-matter expert. Well, Head searched high and low to find details about this historic event that you might not have known, or that you might have known but forgot. (We’ll give you the benefit of the doubt.) From the following 20 questions, let’s see how well you know the Christmas Truce of 1914. (Scroll down for the answers and supplementary information.)

Questions

Q1: Which side – British or German – initiated the truces?

Q2: Why did the Christmas truces take place only between Germans and Brits (including Irish and Scottish soldiers), and only on the Western Front?

Q3: Where did the German soldiers get miniature Christmas trees from?

Q4: What Christmas song were the German soldiers singing on Christmas Eve when the British soldiers first noticed?

Q5: How long did the localized truces last?

Q6: Why had soldiers on both sides expected the war to be over before Christmas?

Q7: What customer service was provided to the German soldiers by a British soldier?

Q8: What game was played between German and British soldiers in No Man’s Land on Christmas Day?

Q9: What memorable thing happened when the Germans were playing football/soccer with the Scottish soldiers?

Q10: What historical figure serving in the trenches at that time vociferously opposed any ceasefire and berated soldiers who partook in it?

Q11: Who had tried in early December to get the WWI warring countries to cease fire for Christmas Day?

Q12: What were the common items exchanged between British and German soldiers as gifts on Christmas Day?

Q13: When German soldiers were fired on by British soldiers after the German soldiers requested a ceasefire, how did the German soldiers respond?

Q14: How did the German and British soldiers support one another when claiming their dead?

Q15: How did WWI’s system of trench warfare interfere with attempts to make the truce universal along the Western Front?

Q16: Why did most of the German soldiers know English?

Q17: How did people not on the front lines or in the military find out about the localized truces?

Q18: How did high-ranking military officials and politicians in Britain and Germany respond to news of the Western Front truces?

Q19: When a German soldier was found in a British trench during a Christmas truce that lasted through New Year’s Eve, what was that soldier’s reason for not leaving?

Q20: What was remarkable about the Christmas Eve weather in Flanders, where the first known Christmas truce occurred?

A World War I German infantryman lights a cigarette for a British soldier during the Christmas truce on the Western Front in Europe in 1914.  Photo by bwise via Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Deed

A World War I German infantryman lights a cigarette for a British soldier during the Christmas truce on the Western Front in Europe in 1914. Photo by bwise via Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Deed

Questions and Answers

Q1: Which side – British or German – initiated the truces?

A1: German, particularly Saxon troops

Christmas morning, German soldiers emerged from their trenches waving their arms. They were holding up white flags to demonstrate that they had no ill intent, asking “Tommy” (their generic name for Brits) not to shoot them and speaking in good English. At first, the British soldiers thought it was a trick, but when it became clear that the Germans weren’t carrying weapons, the Brits became receptive to the outreach. After several minutes, soldiers from both sides met in the area between each side’s trenches, known as “No Man’s Land.”

Saxon troops are credited with having initiated contact with the British, and more truces occurred where British soldiers faced Saxon German soldiers. In addition to being easygoing in general, the Saxons felt a sort of kinship with the British, who were Anglo-Saxons. One German soldier is quoted as reasoning with the British rhetorically, saying: “We are Saxons, you are Anglo-Saxons. What is there for us to fight about?” Moreover, they had Christmas spiritually in common. A Jan. 22, 2015, article in “Boston Globe” quoted a German soldier who said, “You are the same religion as we, and today is the day of peace.”

Q2: Why did the Christmas truces take place only between Germans and Brits (including Irish and Scottish soldiers), and only on the Western Front?

A2: On the Western Front, the French weren’t open to fraternizing with soldiers fighting for a country occupying about one-third of theirs. On the Eastern Front, in Russia, Christmas wasn’t until Jan. 7 because the Russians were using the old Julian Calendar at that time.

In fact, the French people were angry with their British allies for having spent Christmas Day with the enemy, and they harshly criticized the British Army. French women even stood in doorways to spit on British troops passing through La Chappell-d’Armentières, the town adjacent to the truce detailed throughout this article.

Q3: Where did the German soldiers get miniature Christmas trees from?

A3: These were a gift from the German emperor (Kaiser) to boost troop morale.

Kaiser William II even included ornamental candles and additional decorations for the little Tannenbäume (Christmas trees). Low-ranking soldiers had to hike back and forth all day – repeating an 18-mile roundtrip in some places – from supply depots in the rear lines to get these trees and other special food items up to the front lines.

Photo by Tracy Ducasse via Creative Commons CC BY 2.0

Photo by Tracy Ducasse via Creative Commons CC BY 2.0

Q4: What Christmas song were the German soldiers singing on Christmas Eve when the British soldiers first noticed?

A4: “Stille Nacht” (“Silent Night”)

Firsthand accounts of hearing “Silent Night” appear repeatedly in comprehensive diary entries and official war reports on Dec. 24, 1914. In one of these, Private Albert Moren of the Second Queen’s Regiment said that listening to the Germans singing that song was one of the highlights of his life.

At the song’s conclusion, several British units broke into applause or shot flares to signal their approval. The Germans responded by shouting Christmas greetings across No Man’s Land and asking the British to sing “Silent Night” back to them. Instead, the British sang “The First Noel” to the Germans. With that, they set in motion an ad hoc caroling competition that culminated in a surprising Germans-Brits duet of “O Come All Ye Faithful.”

Henry Williamson of the London Regiment recalled the final minutes of Christmas Eve. At midnight, the troops were serenaded by a baritone who sang “Minuit, Chrétiens,” which is French for “Midnight, Christians.” (The English version of “Minuit, Chrétiens” is actually titled “O Holy Night” though.) When the song ended, both the British and the Germans applauded wildly.

Q5: How long did the localized truces last?

A5: For some, the truce ended the day after Christmas; for others, the truce lasted until New Year’s Day 1915.

At dusk on Christmas Day, men returned to their proper trenches, summoned back by flares if necessary. Fighting resumed the next day as instructed in most places; a few got the extended vacation through Jan. 1. That said, in “The Story of the WWI Christmas Truce,” researcher and writer Mike Dash notes, “[I]t does not seem to have been uncommon for the resumption of the war to be marked with further displays of mutual respect between enemies.”

By the way, the first known ceasefire was on Dec. 11. In this instance though, British and German soldiers met civilly in No Man’s Land but didn’t fraternize. Nothing of that nature took place until Dec. 24

Q6: Why had soldiers on both sides expected the war to be over before Christmas?

A6: They had been told this by their superiors, and they assumed they were just fighting a regional conflict that had begun in the Balkans.

An essay in the National WWI Museum’s online exhibition “The Christmas Truce, Winter 1914,” explains it this way: “Many of the Germans were reservists who anticipated a swift victory over the French whilst the British, buoyed by the conceit of being the dominant world power, expected the war to finish by Christmas. For both sides to find themselves bogged down in the wet reality of trench warfare in Flanders came as a rude awakening to the existence of the first truly industrial conflict.”

Q7: What customer service was provided to the German soldiers by a British soldier?

A7: Haircuts

In a 1979 interview about the Christmas Truce, WWI British machine gunner Capt. Bruce Bairnsfather said that one of his machine gunners was an amateur hairdresser in civil life. This gunner cut the “unnaturally long hair of a docile Boche [German soldier], who was patiently kneeling on the ground whilst the automatic clippers crept up the back of his neck.” An entry from one of the diaries retrieved from British WWI soldiers said that there was even a makeshift barbershop, and that the barber charged Germans a few cigarettes per haircut.

Photo in Public Domain

Photo in Public Domain

Q8: What game was played between German and British soldiers in No Man’s Land on Christmas Day?

A8: Football/Soccer, British Expeditionary Force vs. the Imperial German Army

Caps and jackets were converted into goal posts after one of the Brits produced either a makeshift ball or a legitimate football. According to a report from the Bedfordshire Regiment, “a keen sportsman produced a ball, and teams of about fifty a side played until this was unfortunately punctured.” This might have been what British fighter Ernie Williams was referring to when he was interviewed for an Imperial War Museums documentary. “From somewhere, somehow this football appeared.” When the interviewer asked whether it was a proper football, Williams said that it was.

In another record, the football in question was missing the trademark black-and-white icosahedron design: “Some of the troops constructed a homemade football … It was only a plain leather ball.” Others were less fortunate and had to improvise with a can of British bully (corned) beef, sometimes wrapped in a sock

Given that there could be hundreds of players in any given No Man’s Land, most of the fun was just general kick-about, not matches. Where there was a match, however, the Germans won 3-2 over the British. This has been disputed as fictitious, but the UK National Army Museum is confident in the numerous firsthand accounts claiming that score. As Lieutenant Johannes Niemann of the 133rd Saxon Infantry Regiment wrote in a report, as translated, “the Fritzes beat the Tommies 3-2.”

Q9: What memorable thing happened when the Germans were playing football/soccer with Britain’s Scottish soldiers?

A9: The Scottish soldiers accidentally exposed themselves.

The kilt-clad Sutherland Highlanders took on the 133rd Saxon Regiment to for a bottle of schnapps. A Smithsonian article shares the following anecdote – presumably true, but who knows – from Lieutenant Johannes Niemann of the 133rd Saxon Infantry Regiment:

“Us Germans really roared when a gust of wind revealed that the Scots wore no drawers under their kilts—and hooted and whistled every time they caught an impudent glimpse of one posterior belonging to one of ‘yesterday’s enemies.’ But after an hour’s play, when our Commanding Officer heard about it, he sent an order that we must put a stop to it. A little later we drifted back to our trenches and the fraternization ended.”

Q10: What historical figure serving in the trenches at that time vociferously opposed any ceasefire and berated soldiers who partook in it?

A10: Lance Corporal Adolph Hitler, Bavarian Army

A 25-year-old upstart, Hitler was just a dispatch runner for regimental headquarters in 1914, rarely going as far as the forward trenches. Despite being out of his depth, he snapped at his fellow soldiers: “Such a thing should not happen in wartime! Have you no German sense of honor?”

Q11: Who had tried in early December to get the WWI warring countries to cease fire for Christmas Day?

A11: Pope Benedict XV

Benedict ascended to the papacy one month after the war had begun. On Dec. 7, he tried to arrange a truce among the warring nations, asking that “the guns may fall silent at least upon the night the angels sang.” He hoped that the break in momentum would lead to peace talks, but Russia declined his offer.

Photo of Pope Benedict XV by By Nicola Perscheid - Przystanek Historia/ Public Domain

Photo of Pope Benedict XV by By Nicola Perscheid – Przystanek Historia/ Public Domain

Q12: What were the common items exchanged between British and German soldiers as gifts on Christmas Day?

A12: Trinkets, such as buttons, cap badges and insignias

Basically, they exchanged whatever they had with them in the trenches. Being that it was a special time of year, however, they had an unusually full supply of treats to exchange in addition to trinkets. The extra special gifts were wine, beer, schnapps, government-issue rum, pies, sausages, pipes, bread, cigars, games, plum puddings, chocolates, pictures, newspapers, clothing and a belt buckle emblazoned with the Germans’ slogan, “Gott mit uns” (“God is with us”).

The Germans had been supplied by a nationwide campaign to send Leibesgaben (“love gifts”) to each soldier, in addition to Kaiser Wilhelm II’s care packages. In a similar act of charity on the Brits’ side, the wife of Field Marshal Sir John French, British commander-in-chief, asked the nation’s women to knit and mail 250,000 mufflers to keep soldiers warm. Also, the Royal Family sent soldiers Princess Mary boxes, which were tin cases engraved with an outline of the princess and filled with chocolates, sweets, cigarettes, tobacco and a picture card of Queen Mary. These were given to members of the British Expeditionary Force by the Princess Mary’s Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Christmas Fund. According to the UK National Army Museum, more than 355,000 boxes were successfully delivered in time for Christmas Day.

Q13: When German soldiers were fired on by British soldiers after the German soldiers requested a ceasefire, how did the German soldiers respond?

A13: They carried on with their trench Christmas party, not retaliating.

Private Clifford Lane of the 1st Hertfordshire Regiment recalled what had happened when he was interviewed for the Imperial War Museums documentary “The Real Story of the Christmas Truce.” German soldiers in the trenches opposite his own had made peaceful overtures, but Private Lane’s regiment would have none of it:

“Later on in the night there was a great deal of commotion going on in the German front line which was about 100, 150 yards away, I suppose. And after a few moments there were lighted objects raised above the German parapet looking like Chinese lanterns to us. The Germans were shouting over to our trench, there’s no doubt about that at all, and before we could take any action or do anything we were ordered to open rapid fire you see. Which we did. The Germans did not reply to our rapid fire they simply carried on with their celebrations, ignored us completely and were having a very fine time indeed. We never did anything else but simply continue in our wet trenches trying to make the most of a bad job.”

A Dec. 26, 1914, report in a war diary from Brigadier General Sd. Gleichen, 15 Infantry Brigade, to Divisional Headquarters confirmed Private Lane’s recollection: “Although there was a certain amount of firing on our part all yesterday morning and up to 2.p.m. (Christmas Day), there was no response of rifle fire from the enemy on our front (only a few shells in the early morning some distance from the North).”

Q14: How did the German and British soldiers support one another when claiming their dead?

A14: They held joint services to bury the dead, with both sides paying their respects to each fallen soldier, no matter which country that soldier served.

As reported in a Christmas Truce article published by the UK National Archives, the 10, 11 and 12 Infantry Brigade Headquarters diaries all note the efforts of men to collect the fallen from No Man’s Land and provide them with a dignified burial. Men from a British battalion partnered with opposing German units to bury British and German soldiers. Soldiers from both armies attended somber burial ceremonies, and a chaplain from each trench read the service, alternating between English and German.

Q15: How did WWI’s system of trench warfare interfere with attempts to make the truce universal along the Western Front?

A15: Trench warfare in WWI was organized into distinct sectors, and these sectors didn’t (or couldn’t) always communicate with one another.

WWI trench networks extended from the French and Belgian coasts to Switzerland, spanning of several hundred miles. And although many of the trenches were within shouting range of their enemies, they had no such luxury of communicating so easily with fellow soldiers. So, if one sector of trenches was observing a truce, neighboring sectors might not have known. Consequently, they would open fire on nonhostile, unarmed combatants – sometimes acting on orders, but sometimes simply out of confusion.

A quiet moment in the German trenches in Flanders, Belgium during WWI. Photo Credit: Library of Congress via Picryl.com

A quiet moment in the German trenches in Flanders, Belgium during WWI. Photo Credit: Library of Congress via Picryl.com

Q16: Why did most of the German soldiers know English?

A16: It was very common for German reservists to have worked in Britain before the war broke out.

Often, these Germans worked in restaurants in Britain and became acquainted with the regular customers. At one of the localized Christmas truces on the Western Front, there was a bit of a reunion. A German soldier recognized a British gentleman he used to serve all the time as the head water at the Great Central Hotel.

One British soldier, Archibald Stanley, was highly amused by the spot-on London accent a German soldier was able to speak with when chatting together. “I heard one fellow talking English,” Stanley said when being interviewed for a “Voices of the First World War” podcast episode. “I said to him, ‘You speak English?’ You know what he said? ‘Cor blimey mate,’ he said, ‘I was in a London hotel when the war broke out!’ I thought that topped it. He’d got the London accent!”

Q17: How did people not on the front lines or in the military find out about the localized truces?

A17: Soldiers on both sides wrote home about their experiences, and their families shared those letters with the press.

Censorship had not yet been imposed on letters soldiers wrote to loved ones, so they shared everything about their spontaneous, unofficial ceasefires. Also, although photography was discouraged in the trenches, many soldiers snapped a lot of photos – much-needed evidence of the otherwise unbelievable miracle. The combination of so many corroborating stories and imagery from both sides of the war was sensational. By the end of December 1914, newspapers worldwide were spreading the news.

National WWI Museum and Memorial historian and author Stanley Weintraub described researching the Christmas Truce for his 2002 book “Silent Night: The Story of the World War I Christmas Truce.” In his article “Myth or Reality? The 1914 Christmas Truce,” he told about what it was like poring over January 1915 newspapers from Britain: “On the letter-to-the-editor pages, no censorship was yet in place for soldier mail; some troops wrote graphic letters home. Recipients often forwarded extraordinary letters to their local newspapers, which printed them without restraint. Soldiers wrote of encountering friendly enemies – ordinary blokes like themselves.”

Unit war diaries, arranged into monthly folders, recorded the day-to-day activities and experiences of each unit of the British Army. Described thoroughly by the UK National Archives, these were used to confirm the accuracy of letters home.

Q18: How did high-ranking military officials and politicians in Britain and Germany respond to news of the Western Front truces?

A18: Both sides were furious and ordered fighting to resume.

The junior officers on the front lines had tacitly endorsed the truces, but generals on both sides condemned them fiercely. They had actually anticipated rogue ceasefires, and were all the more livid that their concerns had been validated. They were worried that truces might weaken the resolve of their soldiers and establish a dangerous precedent.

Higher-ranking commanders were concerned that the natural camaraderie between enemy soldiers could erode their soldiers’ sense of discipline and combativeness. As a result, they frequently issued decrees prohibiting all forms of fraternization in an effort to stop such truces from occurring in the future. Also, steps were taken to preempt future unannounced, unauthorized ceasefires, such as increasing artillery bombardments and patrols, as well as issuing instructions against ceasefires.

Fraternization with the enemy has historically been regarded by military commanders and politicians as an act of treason, punishable by death. Not wanting to decimate morale in the trenches, the generals opted instead to reassign soldiers to serve in more dangerous areas of the war – notably, the Eastern Front. Even if they didn’t meet their end in their new areas, they were no longer around their new buddies, and that sufficed for some. By moving regiments to other sections of the line, generals were able to dispel any sense of camaraderie their troops might have with those in the trenches opposite theirs.

Q19: When a German soldier was found in a British trench during a Christmas truce that lasted through New Year’s Eve, what was that soldier’s reason for not leaving?

A19: He was drunk and refused to return to a state of war.

During the episode “The Christmas Truce” in the Imperial War Museums podcast “Voices of the First World War,” veteran H. Williams of the London Regiment gave a firsthand account of this amusing scenario:

“This runner came along when I was on this fatigue job and said, ‘You’re wanted again to interpret.’ I said, ‘What is it this time?’ He said, ‘There’s a drunk German in our trenches, and he won’t go back!’ So, I went up and saw our platoon officer there, and he said, ‘Williams, there’s this chap here, he’s drunk. I don’t mind it’s all very well to meet them in No Man’s Land, but he’s actually in our trenches.’

“Anyway, this chap was standing there with a couple of bottles of beer wanting us to drink the health of the New Year and all the rest of it. He said, ‘Tell him he’s got to go back.’ So, I told him. He wouldn’t take any notice – he didn’t want to go back. And this officer said, ‘Well if he stops here, he’s got to be made prisoner, ask him if he wants to be made prisoner!’ So, I did. ‘Oh, was, Gott nein!’ he said. He understood that, but he wouldn’t go back.

“Eventually, the officer detailed another chap and me to take him back, so he was escorted there – one on each side and this chap staggering about and singing at the top of his voice. Well, we got up to the German wire and I thought, ‘Well I don’t think I’ll go right into their trenches; they might not be as lenient as we are.’ Anyway, we found a gap in the wire, headed him in the right direction and left him to it!”

Q20: What was remarkable about the Christmas Eve weather where the first known Christmas truce occurred?

A20: It had been soaking rain and flooding the trenches for weeks, but then it suddenly stopped raining and snowed, firming up the ground and creating a white Christmas.

The torrential rain stopped, and a cold snap struck northern France on Christmas Eve. It froze over the muddy floors of the trenches and made it much easier for soldiers to move around freely. Also, with the frost came a dusting of ice and snow that created the traditional Christmas ambiance. The aforementioned Smithsonian article speculates that the abrupt, favorable change in the weather “made the men on both sides feel that something spiritual was taking place.”

Interestingly, instances of inclement weather that suspended war campaigns far back in history were typically met with a cessation of hostility, and even some fraternizing. Michael St. Maur Sheil, author of “An Ancient Tradition in an Industrial War,” observed: “It was hardly surprising that young men of both sides should do the same in 1914.”

Photo by Balazs Simon/pexels.com

Photo by Balazs Simon/pexels.com

Conclusion

The soldiers who participated in Christmas Truce ceasefires didn’t expect to change anything about the war; most of them didn’t even expect to get more than one day of peace. In a letter home, Rifleman Eade of the 3rd Rifle Brigade quoted a German soldier he fraternized with who understood the situation: “Today, we have peace. Tomorrow, you fight for your country, I fight for mine. Good luck!” No one in the trenches that fateful December had the authority to end the war. Plus, discipline and honor compelled them to return to fighting, rather than choosing mutiny or desertion.

Warfare became increasingly cruel as the years dragged on, including massive civilian casualties, such as the sinking of the Lusitania. So, the instinct to humanize the enemy, compounded by the threat of severe punishment for fraternizing, made 1914 the only year with a ceasefire on Christmas. To quote Joseph D. Eanett, author of “The Last Gasp of Peace: The Christmas Truce of 1914 and the Modern Profession of Arms,” “Wars are fought between nations, and soldiers are but tools of those political disagreements.” No such truce, at so great a scale, ever took place again.

Kathleen Hearons is a writer, editor, linguist and voice over actor from Los Angeles. She specializes in creative writing and research-intensive analysis and reporting.  

 

 

 

Sources and Suggested Reading

“A First World War Christmas.” National Army Museum. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/christmas-ww1.

Asencio Lopez, Margarita M. “The Great Truce.” Veterans for Peace. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.veteransforpeace.org/files/2914/1288/2545/thegreattruce_margaritaasenciolopez.pdf.

Baime, A.J., and Volker Janssen. “WWI’s Christmas Truce: When Fighting Paused for the Holiday.” History.com. Last updated October 4, 2022. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.history.com/news/christmas-truce-1914-world-war-i-soldier-accounts.

Cart, Doran. “Christmas Truce.” The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Accessed December 12, 2023. http://exhibitions.theworldwar.org/christmas-truce/introduction/essay-2.

“Christmas During World War I.” The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://theworldwar.org/learn/about-wwi/christmas-during-world-war-i.

“Christmas Eve 1944: a brief moment of peace on the battlefield.” American Battle Monuments Commission. December 23, 2020. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.abmc.gov/news-events/news/christmas-eve-1944-brief-moment-peace-battlefield.

Czaplinski, Richard. “The Christmas Truce – An Outburst of Peace During War.” Veterans for Peace. December 19, 2019. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.veteransforpeace.org/who-we-are/member-highlights/2019/12/19/christmas-truce-peace-during-war.

Dash, Mike. “The Story of the WWI Christmas Truce.” Smithsonian. December 23, 2011. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-story-of-the-wwi-christmas-truce-11972213/.

Eanett, Joseph D. “The Last Gasp of Peace: The Christmas Truce of 1914 and the Modern Profession of Arms.” War on the Rocks. December 25, 2020. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://warontherocks.com/2020/12/the-last-gasp-of-peace-the-christmas-truce-of-1914-and-the-modern-profession-of-arms/.

“Eastern Front: World War I [1914-1918].” Britannica. Accessed December 16, 2023. https://www.britannica.com/event/Eastern-Front-World-War-I-history.

Gavin, Jerome. “The Christmas Truce.” Vision of Humanity. 2022. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.visionofhumanity.org/the-christmas-truce/.

Kohls, Gary G. “Lessons from the Christmas Truce of 1914.” Portside. December 19, 2013. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://portside.org/2013-12-19/lessons-christmas-truce-1914.

Langrish, David. “The Christmas truce, 1914.” The National Archives. December 20, 2018. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://blog.nationalarchives.gov.uk/christmas-truce-1914/.

Mamchii, Oleksandra. “Humanity in Disaster: Truth Behind Christmas Truce of 1914.” Best Diplomats. November 6, 2023. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://bestdiplomats.org/christmas-truce-of-1914/.

McKeown, Jonah. “The Christmas Truce of 1914: Here’s what really happened.” Catholic News Agency. December 25, 2022. Accessed December 13, 2023. https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/253142/the-christmas-truce-of-1914-here-s-what-really-happened.

Moss, Stephen. “Truce in the trenches was real, but football tales are a shot in the dark.” The Guardian. December 16, 2014. Accessed December 16, 2023. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/16/truce-trenches-football-tales-shot-in-dark.

Oliver, Arnold. “A truce from the trenches.” Battle Creek Enquirer. December 20, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.battlecreekenquirer.com/story/opinion/columnists/2014/12/20/truce-trenches/20665835/.

Oliver, Charles, et al. “Christmas Eve, 1914.” Audible Studios: 2014.

“Peace in No Man’s Land? The Truth Behind the Christmas Truce.” Commonwealth War Graves Commission. December 15, 2022. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.cwgc.org/our-work/blog/peace-in-no-man-s-land-the-truth-behind-the-christmas-truce/.

Philpot, Terry. “World War I’s Pope Benedict XV and the pursuit of peace.” National Catholic Reporter. July 19, 2014. Accessed December 17, 2023. https://www.ncronline.org/news/justice/world-war-pope-benedict-xv-and-pursuit-peace.

Ray, Michael. “Christmas Truce: World War I.” Britannica. Last updated November 17, 2023. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.britannica.com/event/The-Christmas-Truce.

“Remembering An Unprecedented Christmas Truce in World War I!.” Museum of the American G.I. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://americangimuseum.org/remembering-an-unprecedented-christmas-truce-in-world-war-i/.

Sharwood, Anthony. “The WWI Christmas Truce, what really happened?.” News.com.au. December 24, 2014. Accessed December 17, 2023. https://www.news.com.au/national/the-wwi-christmas-truce-what-really-happened/news-story/dcce417d43e678f624a1d81a212e12e5.

St. Maur Sheil, Michael. “An Ancient Tradition in an Industrial War.” The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Accessed December 12, 2023. http://exhibitions.theworldwar.org/christmas-truce/introduction/essay-3.

Stewart, Jill. “Christmas Day 1914 – Goodwill to all men?.” Western Front Association. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.westernfrontassociation.com/world-war-i-articles/christmas-day-1914-goodwill-to-all-men/.

Terraine, John. “Christmas 1914, And After.” History Today, Vol. 29, Iss. 12 (December 1979). Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.historytoday.com/archive/christmas-1914-and-after.

“The Christmas Truce.” Kids Britannica. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://kids.britannica.com/kids/article/The-Christmas-Truce/607325.

“The Christmas Truce of 1914: Fact and Fiction.” Warfare History Network. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/the-christmas-truce-of-1914-fact-and-fiction/.

“The Christmas Truce of 1914: The History of the Holiday Ceasefire during World War I.” Charles River Editors: 2016.

“The Christmas Truce, Winter 1914.” The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.theworldwar.org/exhibitions/christmas-truce-winter-1914.

“The day book.” Chicago: 1914. Accessed December 17, 2023. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045487/1914-12-12/ed-1/seq-3/.

“The Real Story of the Christmas Truce.” Imperial War Museums. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/the-real-story-of-the-christmas-truce.

“The story behind the 1914 Christmas Day Truce.” FaithCounts. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://faithcounts.com/the-story-behind-the-1914-christmas-day-truce/.

“Voices of the First World War: Over by Christmas.” Imperial War Museums. Accessed December 16, 2023. https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/voices-of-the-first-world-war-over-by-christmas.

“Voices of the First World War: The Christmas Truce.” Imperial War Museums. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/voices-of-the-first-world-war-the-christmas-truce.

Walker, Malea. “Good Will Toward Men: The Great War’s Christmas Truce.” Library of Congress. December 22, 2020. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://blogs.loc.gov/headlinesandheroes/2020/12/good-will-toward-men-the-great-wars-christmas-truce/.

Weintraub, Stanley. “Myth or Reality? The 1914 Christmas Truce.” The National WWI Museum and Memorial. Accessed December 12, 2023. http://exhibitions.theworldwar.org/christmas-truce/introduction/essay-1.

Weintraub, Stanley. “Silent Night: The Remarkable Christmas Truce of 1914.” Plume: 2002.

“Western Front Christmas Truce 1914.” The National Archives. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/significant-events/western-front-christmas-truce-1914/.

“Western Front: World War I [1914-1918].” Britannica. Last updated November 7, 2023. Accessed December 16, 2023. https://www.britannica.com/event/Western-Front-World-War-I.

“What was the World War I Christmas Truce?.” National Veterans Memorial Museum. December 21, 2021. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://nationalvmm.org/what-was-the-world-war-i-christmas-truce/.

Willson, S. Brian. “Significance of the 1914 Christmas Truce.” Veterans for Peace. December 8, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://www.veteransforpeace.org/who-we-are/member-highlights/2014/12/08/significance-1914-christmas-truce-s-brian-willson.

“World War history: Daily records and comments as appeared in American and foreign newspapers, 1914-1926 (New York), December 30, 1914, (1914 December 30 – 1915 January 1).” Accessed December 17, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/resource/2004540423/1914-12-30/ed-1/?sp=136&q=Christmas+Truce&r=-0.473,0,1.946,1.388,0&r=-0.394,-0.649,1.925,1.373,0.

“World War history: daily records and comments as appeared in American and foreign newspapers, 1914-1926 (New York), January 20, 1915, (1915 January 20-24).” Accessed December 17, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/resource/2004540423/1915-01-20/ed-1/?sp=154&q=Christmas+Truce&r=0.614,0.012,0.526,0.375,0&r=0.568,0,0.631,0.45,0.

“World War I, Christmas Truce: Topics in Chronicling America.” Library of Congress. Accessed December 12, 2023. https://guides.loc.gov/chronicling-america-wwi-christmas-truce/introduction?loclr=blogser.

Young, Ned. “The 1914 Christmas Truce – Determining Fact from Fiction.” Virtual War Memorial Australia. Accessed December 13, 2023. https://vwma.org.au/collections/home-page-stories/the-1914-christmas-truce—determining-fact-from-fiction.